Made of Bugs

Versioning Dotfiles in Git

I've been looking for a good solution for versioning and synchronizing my dotfiles between machines for some time. I experimented with keeping all of ~ in subversion for a while, but it never worked out well for me.

I've finally settled on a solution that I like using git, and so this is a writeup of my workflows for working with my dotfiles in git, in the hopes that someone else might find it useful. You will not find any scripts here, only a description of a workflow: It's simple enough that I have not felt the need to script any of the pieces, even though I potentially could.

On the machines

On each machine, I have the dotfiles directory checked out into ~/.dotfiles/, and a symlink farm from the actual files in ~/ into ~/.dotfiles. If I need to edit files, I just edit them in place and commit in ~/.dotfiles. When adding new dotfiles, I just manually create them in the checkout and create the symlink – no fancy scripts. I do this rarely enough that I find it doesn't bug me.


I maintain one branch for each machine or group of machines I keep dotfiles on. For instance, my laptop has a branch, my desktop has a branch, and all of the machines I have accounts on at work share a branch. In addition there is a "master" branch, which contains a prototypical set of dotfiles without any machine-specific customizations.

In an ideal world, any change to my dotfiles would go to either master (if it is common to all machines) or to a specific machine branch, and I could then merge master into each machine branch to sync the state of my dotfiles around. Unfortunately, one of my main desiderata is that I can edit and commit dotfiles in place. And committing to a non-checked-out branch is awkward at best, and checking out master in the ~/.dotfiles/ working copy is undesirable, since that might disrupt other programs that are using my dotfiles at the time. So in practice, I make commits to the branch of whichever machine I made a given change on, and then push them to that branch in the master repository on my server.


Periodically, I fetch that repository into another working copy, and synchronize the branches. I check out master, and git cherry-pick any commits off of each per-machine branch that should be shared among all the machines. Once that's done, I check out each per-machine branch in turn, and git merge master back into it. With that done, I push the branches back, and pull them on each machine.

It's very important that this process – including the merging back from master – be done in a separate working copy. Otherwise, a conflicted merge results in conflict markers in your dotfiles. It was particularly fun when I did this once and had a conflict in .gitconfig, as git then immediately stopped working, and so I couldn't reset --hard out of the merge or inspect history until I either resolved the merge or moved the broken file aside.

In practice, this sequence happens maybe once a month, and takes half an hour or so. I could probably script some of that away, but I find it mostly acceptable as is.

Final thoughts

I find the "commit and cherry-pick" workflow somewhat unfortunate, in that it results in two copies of every commit, and it makes "synchronize my dotfiles" a sufficiently expensive operation (in terms of effort) that it doesn't happy continually. It's conceivable that I would be better served by being disciplined about, after testing any change, immediately copying the files to another repository and comitting onto master and merging into the appropriate branch. However, I haven't experimented with that because I intensely dislike any workflow that turns a common, simple operation ("make a stupid fix to my dotfiles") into a more complex one. The current workflow does include a complex operation (the cherry-pick and merge step), but it's a batch job, so I don't mind scheduling it periodically, and it is an additional task I perform on top of the normal work of "messing with dotfiles", which has specific additional benefit ("keeping my dotfiles in sync"), so I find it much more palatable.